TAJIKISTAN — THE PEARL OF CENTRAL ASIA, THE TOURISM POTENTIAL OF TAJIKISTAN

Of Tajikistan — the pearl of Central Asia’s tourism potential of Tajikistan Tajikistan is a unique tourist attraction of today, since it has a great cultural and historical heritage, unique culture, favorable geographical location, diversity of natural landscapes, recreational areas, flora and fauna. The history of the Tajik people has its roots in ancient times, the beginning of human civilization. The oldest objects found on the territory of modern Tajikistan proof, for example the ancient city — Kulyab, Khujand, Istaravshan, Penjikent and located on the territory of the ancient city of Penjikent Sarazm Aryans and ancient Penjikent. Opening of the first monuments of the Stone Age in 1956.

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It was a kind of sensation. 60 points to the findings of stone tools were registered on the territory of the country. As found by parking, located at an altitude of 4200 meters above sea level in the remote areas of the highlands, excavated more than 10 thousand pieces of stone. They are represented by large tools such as scrapers, scrapers, notched tools that are stored in the processing of Palaeolithic tradition. Age of public monuments of the Stone Age refers mainly VIII-V millennium BC. Rock carvings — petroglyphs carved on rocks or stones separate figures of animals, people or entire composition, are separate and very specific area of ​​archaeological research in Tajikistan and currently open for more than 10 thousand drawings on rocks. Mountains and valleys of Tajikistan, peoples living in its territory, are mentioned in the ancient sources of ancient authors Pliny and Ptolemy. On his travels to the Pamirs wrote the Venetian traveler Marco Polo, which is named in honor of a special kind of mountain goats, enduring in the Pamir Mountains. Tajikistan’s territory since ancient times lay on the important historical routes of the Silk Road connecting East and West. It occupied an important place in international trade and cultural exchange, linking the ancient possessions of Bactria — Taharistana (Chaganian, Shumon, Ahorun, Kubodiёn, Vakhsh, Huth, Rasht, Kumed, Darvoz, Vanj, Rushan and Wakhan), Sughd, Istaravshan (Ustrushana) and Ferghana with India, Afghanistan and China. Silk was a certain way not only for trade and economic relations. But also through the exchange of cultures of the peoples living along the caravan routes of the Silk Road. Currently, due to the development of international trade, economic and cultural contacts of the Great Silk Road has become a symbol of friendship, mutual understanding and good relations between the peoples of the countries along the way. World Tourism Organization (WTO) and UNESCO, in collaboration with the National Tourism Administration of the Republic, given the rich cultural and historical heritage of the peoples living along the Great Silk Road, take measures for the development of tourism and hotel infrastructure in the region, in particular, and Tajikistan. Since independence, the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan implemented important projects for the rehabilitation and construction of new roads of international importance. By 1100 the centenary of the Samanid state foundation commissioned road Kulob was put — Khorog — Kulma followed Karokarumskoe access to the highway. This road connects Tajikistan with China and Pakistan, and allows access to sea routes, which creates a good basis for the tourist exchange and implementation of the WTO «Tourism on the Silk Road» project. Today, the ancient cities of Tajikistan — Khujand, Istaravshan, Panjakent, Kulyab, whose appearance has changed significantly over the years, carefully preserve the ancient historical, cultural and craft traditions. Until now, preserved the famous dynasty gold embroidery masters, masters for the production of silk, Abra, batik, gulduzi, skullcaps embroiderers, weavers, jewelers, masters of knives, craftsmen ceramists, whose products are known throughout the world. Among the tourists visiting this ancient city’s most popular ethnographic tourism, in which, in addition to studying the historical traditions, culture and life of people, tourists, under the guidance of famous artists have the opportunity to learn the basics and skills of ancient forgotten crafts. Tourists can also during his travels across the country, stay in hotels and the local population, for more in-depth study of the culture of the east and the Tajik hospitality and life of local people, especially they like to live among the population Yagnob, representatives of the ancient Sogdian culture, custom, , rituals, and most importantly — drevnesogdiyskogo language that is stored exclusively Yagnob residents. Tajik sea called Kairakkum reservoir located east of Khujand, formed as a result of construction of hydropower plants on the river Syr Darya, which has become an excellent tourist destination. On its shores there were motels, camping sites, located in the magnificent orchards. An illustrative example — Bakhoriston resort, built on the banks of Kairakum reservoir, which is a resort complex. The resort is famous and popular for both local residents (domestic tourists), who spend their weekends and holidays in the sanatorium, and for tourists who came from near and far abroad (international tourists). Sanatorium Bakhoriston being a modern resort area, which meets all international standards and requirements, it is considered a key target of international tourism in Tajikistan, along with other objects of the Tajik tourism industry. Modern Tajikistan — a mountainous country with altitudes ranging from 300 to 7495 meters above sea level. 93% of the country is mountain ranges relating to Pamirs, Hissar-Alai and Tien Shan mountain system. These ranges are divided rich and fertile lands of Ferghana, Zarafshan, Hissar and Vakhsh valleys. The complexity of the relief and big amplitude of mountain systems of heights explains the exceptional diversity of flora and fauna. Tajikistan — the highest peaks of the edge, a huge, multi-layer and multi-year ice, rapid turbulent rivers, indescribable in its beauty lakes, unique natural landscapes, unique flora and rare animals. It is mountainous, floor landscape determines originality and uniqueness of the nature of Tajikistan, the richness of its forms brought to life by a variety of climatic zones. In the republic a half hour flight from the sweltering heat of Vakhsh valley can get to the arctic cold of eternal snows of the Pamirs, and these are the Tajik people with its wealth of ancient ground beckon people from all over the world again and again. On the basis of the existing 13 state nature reserves and «Zorkul» reserves, «Romit», «Mozkul», «Dashti Jum» and the Tajik National Park preserved intact the unique ecology, landscapes and natural monuments. Preserved and rare endangered species of plants and animals listed in the Red Book, including screw-horned goat (morhur), mountain argali (Marco Polo), Bukhara argali (urea), spotted Bukhara deer, snow leopard, Tien Shan brown bear, striped hyena, Indian mountain goose. On the territory of the country inhabited by 84 species of mammals, over 365 species of birds, 49 species of reptiles, about 52 species of fish and more than 10,000 species of insects. Flora of Tajikistan has more than 5,000 species of higher plants, including many endemic species. The territory of Tajik National Park is 2.6 million hectares, which covers 18 percent of the country’s territory and 60 percent of the Gorno-Badakhshan autonomous region of the country. In recent years, the Directorate of the National Park actively implemented measures to promote eco-tourism infrastructure and improve environmental conditions in the High Pamir, which is a priority for tourism worldwide due to global warming and environmental degradation of the planet. One of the most unique corners of nature in the upper reaches of the Amu Darya, is called «Tiger bar.» It is home to pristine natural conditions animals such as deer, hangul, antelope desert gazelle, leopard, jungle cat, hyena, black-Tajik golden pheasant, partridge-Chil, the eagle-toed snake-eagle, wild boar, badger, porcupine. From reptiles valuable for science and medicine Central Asian cobra, viper, EFA and numerous group of other non-poisonous snakes. The rivers and lakes are found fish such as trout, Marina, catfish, snakehead, carp, grass carp, and in the lower reaches of the river Vakhsh preserved ancient relic fish — skafiringus. The country operates 125 objects of tourist and health resort orientation, including 51 and 9 health centers, make up the rest of the house and recreation areas, tourist centers, health camps. Most hotels are located in Dushanbe, Khujand, Kurgan-Tube, Kulyab and Khorog. Tajikistan has 3 international airports in Dushanbe, Khujand and Kulyab. The territory of the republic from west to east crossing the 3 branches of the railway, which connect the central, northern and southern regions of the country through the territory of neighboring and friendly, close to the history, culture, religion, customs and traditions of the countries of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Natural and recreational resources of the republic, the existence of historical and cultural monuments predetermine peculiarities formed the national tourism product, promotion and implementation of which in the world markets of tourist services, provides a flow of foreign tourists to Tajikistan, as evidenced by the statistics, which are conducted by the Office responsible for the promotion of youth Committee sports and tourism under the government of the Republic of Tajikistan: The total number of foreign nationals have crossed the RT abroad as tourists according to the standard requirements of the World tourism Organization — 2008 — 325 000 — 2009 — 207 000 — 2010 — 160 000 — 2011 — 183 000 — 2012 — 170 000 (data for 9 months, rather than a full year) are known and priority modes of international tourism in the country are considered: — climbing, mountain sports and eco-tourism — rafting, a pair gliding, skiing — international hunting — historical and educational and ethnographic tourism — spa treatment and recreation. On the territory of Tajikistan is the majestic Pamir — one of the famous highlands of the world with absolute heights from 2800 to 7495 m above sea level, known worldwide as the «roof of the world.». Here, tourist resources are climbing routes on the highest mountain peaks — Somoni and Korzhenevskoy, located at an altitude of 7000 meters, the hunting grounds, natural landscapes, caves and mineral springs of thermal and cold, carbonate and silicate waters. Every year in Tajikistan, conducted international climbing expeditions, during which the climbers from around the world to climb to the highest peaks of the country. Conquer the peak Somoni (7.495 meters) — high-rise pole Pamir — eager climbers from all over the world. The unique topography of the region favors the development of hiking trails and trekking of varying degrees of difficulty, engage in special activities such as rock climbing, hiking, skiing, mountaineering, combined with hunting and photo hunting, white water rafting, paragliding, snowboarding, caving and other types of extreme tourism. Tajikistan is the richest country in terms of reserves of fresh water resources. Almost half of the water resources of the countries of Central Asia are formed in high mountain rivers, lakes and glaciers of the country. The Republic of Tajikistan on reserves of hydropower ranked eighth in the world. Especially Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region of the republic is very rich in lakes, which have very different origins. The largest of them are Karakul, Zorkul, Rangkul, Shorkul, Bulunkul and Lake Sarez, which was formed by an earthquake in 1911. In general, in the Pamir region, at altitudes from 3200 to 5000 meters, concentrated 1450 lakes and 220 rivers, or 83% of the total area of ​​lakes mirror Tajikistan. The biggest lake in the Pamirs is a unique salty lake Karakul, located at an altitude of 3914 meters above sea level. Its maximum depth of -236 meters. It is believed that it was formed during the ice age and the bottom of the lake, as well as some of its coast for many kilometers are covered by permafrost. In Tajikistan There are about 200 sources of mineral and thermal waters, on the basis of which develops health-kurotnoe direction of tourism. The most famous of them resort «Khoja Obi Garm» resorts «Shaambary», «Obi Garm», «Zumrad», «Havatag». In sanatoriums and resorts of Tajikistan provides services for treatment of diseases of the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, musculoskeletal system, urinary system, gynecological diseases, gastrointestinal tract, liver and biliary tract, and skin diseases. On hot carbonate springs resorts «Garmchashma», «Bashor» and «Shahdara» formed travertine — limestone deposits sinter forms. Particularly beautiful they are the source Garmchashma, located 35 km from the city of Khorog. Garmchashma Source is located at an altitude of 2325m above sea level, and visible from afar thanks to the exceptional white travertine. Travertines are long shaft, laced ledges down to the river. On the slopes it hang like stalactites grown together, producing the impression of frozen cascades and stone bowls. On ledges form natural bath with water of different temperatures (up to 620 C). Man-made unique nature sanctuary in the Pamirs is the Pamir Botanical Garden, located at an altitude of 2320m above sea level in the near Khorog. This garden on the background of barren slopes is a real green miracle, which collected more than 20 thousand plants from all continents. Among them are such rare and unusual specimens of plants, as Amur velvet, cork tree, black Austrian pine and a unique collection of roses with the purest colors and the incomparable aroma. Especially popular among the tourists and climbers Fan Mountains, which are located between the Zarafshan and Gissar range from Kshtutdari to Fondari. Today, Fan Mountains, the most accessible of the high mountains of the country for tourists. In most of these mountains of stone housed mirror blue-green water — Lake Iskandarkul, the largest lake in Fann mountains located in northern Tajikistan. Widely it was stretched at a height of 2200 meters. Here tourists can watch the stars twinkle and mist rising from the lake. On the shore of the lake is 160 km from Dushanbe is located hostel «Iskandarkul». This way tourists make on cars on amazing gorges Fandarya, Yagnob and Iskandardari. The mountains around seem to be multicolored, as they are dominated by bluish, red and purple hues. Iskandardari Gorge is sometimes called canyons of colored rocks, and wind power have turned them into intricate walls and castles. Many interesting awaits lovers of travel and in the south of Tajikistan. One of the oldest cities in Central Asia Kulyab in 2006 celebrated its 2700th anniversary jubilee, which has become a landmark event for the country. The loess strata near Baljuvan district Tajik archaeologists have unearthed stone tools, the oldest ever found in Central Asia — their ages 850,000 years. It also opened a unique parking Neanderthals in Dangara district of the cave Ogizkichik with foci around which found 15 thousand charred shells of turtles. The unique historical and architectural monument is the mausoleum of an outstanding thinker and religious leader IV century Mir Said Ali Hamadoni in Kulyab, which make religious pilgrimages many followers read his Sufi teachings. At the initiative of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan, Emomali Rahmon, the UN decided to declare this ten-year, Decade of Freshwater. And this decision was made on purpose. Since, on the fresh water reserves, Tajikistan is one of the first places in the world. An integral part of these stocks are glaciers: Fedchenko and Zeravshan. The most famous tourist sites in Tajikistan include the largest Fedchenko Glacier Pamir highlands located on the territory of central Tajikistan. Glacier stretches for 77 km and covers an area of ​​700 km2. Almost all of the Central Asian rivers originate from the peaks of the Pamir Mountains. It is rich in mountains, rivers fleeting. On the banks of each of these rivers, organized recreation. The crystal clear water of these rivers, are increasingly attracting the attention of foreign tourists. Panj Rivers and in translation means «five» one of the largest rivers of Tajikistan. Five mountain rivers merging together to form this river, which is one of the areas with neighboring Afghanistan border. Kofarnihon, Varzob, Karatal, Shirkent — is the most fleeting of the river that never freezes. When the air temperature 40 degrees in the shade, the water of these rivers is still cold, no more than 5-6 degrees. Chiluchor — Chashma (Forty-four springs) — widely known in Tajikistan, located on the territory Shaartuz district of Khatlon region. Each source has its own name and the purpose of healing. Khoja Obigarm resort, even when the Soviet Union was a famous and mostly there healthier members of the government, authorities and security forces of the Soviet Union government. At this time, these resorts are taking tens of thousands of visitors a year. It is worth noting that the water in the sanatorium Radon, which is the world’s few where you can meet. This water is only in France and Tajikistan. Everyone knows that the French radon water source, with each passing day it becomes less and less, and the Hodge-Obigarm source, also not used to the extent which can be used to the extent that allows the source of supply. The gorge is located Shirkent medical source. Thousands of people come here to cure all kinds of skin diseases. In addition, in the valley on the banks of the river there are: the Children’s recreation camp and recreational area ‘Shirkent’. And Karatag Gorge, in addition to numerous recreation centers, there is a stone, which is visited by people who wish to recover from whooping cough and other types of cough. Also Shirkent has two areas — Shirkent Shiokent-1 and-2, where you can see the traces left by dinosaurs, which speak of the existence of areas of modern Tajikistan during the time when these creatures lived. Garmchashma. Having drunk the water of mineral springs, no one can forget the taste of this divine and healing water. Gissar historical and cultural reserve is 30 km from the city of Dushanbe, is the town of Hissar, which is the center of the fertile Hissar valley. These places were inhabited in the Stone Age, and later the valley area was part of the ancient state formations such as Bactria, Greco-Bactrian and Kushan kingdoms. In the Middle Ages Hissar bekstva it was part of the Bukhara Emirate and the glory of the East for its handicrafts, oriental bazaar and madrassas, which apart from men and girls learn. At this time, in the area of ​​86 hectares located Gissar historical and cultural reserve, which includes archaeological and architectural monuments of different eras. Of particular interest is the architectural ensemble formed around Hissar fortress, where the palace of Hissar Bek — governor area. Khujand fortress historic pride of the entire population of Khujand Khujand is a fortress. With Khujand fortress due liberation struggle of the Tajik people under the guidance of the great general Temurmalik. Hulbuk 12 km from the town of Kulob in the territory of Vose district is historical reserve Hulbuk, which in ancient times was the capital of the region Huttalyan. In the course of archaeological excavations carried out by archaeologists in the 50-70 years of the twentieth century, it was discovered a huge palace of brick, decorated with carvings in alabaster, wall paintings. Lake Iskanderkul according to legend owes its name to the name of Alexander the Great, who in the East called Iskander Zulkarnayn (Iskander horned). The word «sack» actually means «lake», hence the name — «Iskanderkul». Alexander the Great visited here on their way from Central Asia to India. Also, near the lake, Iskanderkul River, is a large waterfall, called «Fan Niagara». The waterfall is located in a narrow gorge, the height of the water drop is 43 meters. Come up to the waterfall is possible only on the top, just above it is a metal observation deck. Along with the above-mentioned objects of tourism in Tajikistan, it is possible to transfer even to mention another of the Seven Lakes Valley, located in the Zarafshan Valley, there Kulikalon lake Nurek reservoir, waterfalls in Varzob and Ramit valleys, and many other tourist facilities. It should be noted that the mountains of Tajikistan attract both trekking enthusiasts and athletes involved in mountain sports like rock climbing. I am glad that in the Fan Mountains, in the area called Zaamin Karor annually held regional, world championships for sport climbing. These competitions include the CIS championship, the World Cup, as well as the Russian Federation holds its domestic championship in this sport, it is in Tajikistan, more precisely in Zamin Karori. It can not fail to please, this fact, which once again proves lack of competitiveness of other countries with Tajikistan, on the part of mountain ranges, for a variety of sporting events.

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In these competitions, together with participants from different countries take part and Tajik athletes, such as in 2011 and 2012, Tajikistan was represented in the person of the mountain-sports and industrial club in mountaineering and rock climbing, Sharipov Anatoly, a multiple champion of Tajikistan, the champion of Central Asia and the owner icon Cliffhanger USSR with his student Timur Dzhurabayeva, a multiple champion and winner of Tajikistan Tajikistan badge climber who successfully participated and reached the final stages of the championship. Also in Tajikistan operating base for paragliding and hang gliding, base are in Varzob and Badakhshan. In Badakhshan began to develop in recent years — skaybording (sky boarding), jumping from the slopes of the mountains with parachutes that dress up like a garment. The promotion and development of tourism in Tajikistan, plays an important role of the Committee of Youth, Sport and Tourism, which carry out various activities, seminars, round tables and conferences, which raise questions about the development of tourism and solved at a good pace. By decision of the Government of Tajikistan, Varzob, Ramit and Baljuvan Valley were declared zones and tourism in these areas are tourist sites with the infrastructure that will soon compete with other countries in the international tourism market. In the years of independence of Tajikistan universities appeared in the direction of specialty tourism, which annually produce highly qualified professionals, and they are working in the field of tourism, contributing to the development of the national tourism industry. In the big cities of the country hotels meet all international standards and requirements were built, and they are successfully working, receiving guests and leisure travelers, providing them with high quality services. These objects include hotels Hyatt Regency Dushanbe, Dushanbe Serena, Tajikistan, Asia Grand, Taj Palace, Serena Khorog and many others. We can say with confidence that in the coming years, Tajikistan has come to the world market of international tourism, presents the tourist product to a potential customer, its national product is able to compete with products from other countries, which will serve as an impetus to attract more tourists to the country, thus contributing to the development of tourism in country and very likely in the transformation of Tajikistan in the tourism superpower. And here, in the end, I want to finish the article with the words of tourists visiting Tajikistan, whose name is unfortunately unknown: — «In order to see and feel the color and exoticism of Asia, it is imperative to visit Tajikistan, visit its rich and diverse markets with an abundance of fruits and vegetables , wander in the shady streets of the historic old city, sit in the tea houses, covered with openwork ornaments, fragrant green tea drink, to talk to people, study their traditions, culture and way of life, to know the kindness, greatness and wisdom of the people.»